To lose in Japanese 無くす?亡くす?失う?

無くす(なくす)

This なくす is used when we lose something tangible.

財布無くす
lose a wallet
なくす
lose a key
ペン無くす 
lose a pen

亡くす(なくす)

This なくす is used when we lose someone.
*This is a transitive verb. Always someone who is deceased is the object in the sentence and I is the subject.

去年、母を亡くした。
I lost my mother last year.
長年の友達を、がんで亡くした。
I lost my long time friend due to cancer.
祖父を事故で亡くした。
I lost my grandfather due to an accident.

失う(うしなう)

This うしなう is used for both tangible and intangible objects and even person. Mostly for intangible objects.

コロナで仕事を失う
lose a job due to Covid19

嘘で信頼を失う
lose a credit because of a lie
気を失う
faint, to lose consciousness
光を失う
lose light
= to lose one's eyesight = to be blind
興味を失う
lose interest

意欲を失う
to lose motivation


For tangible objects, なくなる is more daily use. When you use うしなう for tangible object, it sounds serious matter.

Sentences below grammatically work , but it sounds exaggerated.

手袋を失う
lose gloves
ハンカチを失う
lose handkerchief

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